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A brief history of Europe as told through the peculiar observations from college students’ papers.

Editor’s Note: One of the most popular Wilson Quarterly essays ever (and by far the funniest) was Anders Henriksson’s brief history of Europe as told through the peculiar observations he had culled from papers written by college freshmen he had taught in Canada. As we wrote in introducing the piece in the Spring 1983 issue, paraphrasing George Santayana, “Those who forget history are condemned to mangle it.”

History, as we know, is always bias, because human beings have to be studied by other human beings, not by independent observers of another species.

During the Middle Ages, everybody was middle aged. Church and state were co-operatic. Middle Evil society was made up of monks, lords, and surfs. It is unfortunate that we do not have a medivel European laid out on a table before us, ready for dissection. After a revival of infantile commerce slowly creeped into Europe, merchants appeared. Some were sitters and some were drifters. They roamed from town to town exposing themselves and organized big fairies in the countryside. Mideval people were violent. Murder during this period was nothing. Everybody killed someone. England fought numerously for land in France and ended up wining and losing. The Crusades were a series of military expaditions made by Christians seeking to free the holy land (the “Home Town” of Christ) from the Islams.

In the 1400 hundreds most Englishmen were perpendicular. A class of yeowls arose. Finally, Europe caught the Black Death. The bubonic plague is a social disease in the sense that it can be transmitted by intercourse and other etceteras. It was spread from port to port by inffected rats. Victims of the Black Death grew boobs on their necks. The plague also helped the emergance of the English language as the national language of England, France and Italy.

The Middle Ages slimpared to a halt. The renasence bolted in from the blue. Life reeked with joy. Italy became robust, and more individuals felt the value of their human being. Italy, of course, was much closer to the rest of the world, thanks to northern Europe. Man was determined to civilise himself and his brothers, even if heads had to roll! It became sheik to be educated. Art was on a more associated level. Europe was full of incredable churches with great art bulging out their doors. Renaissance merchants were beautiful and almost lifelike.

The Reformnation happened when German nobles resented the idea that tithes were going to Papal France or the Pope thus enriching Catholic coiffures. Traditions had become oppressive so they too were crushed in the wake of man’s quest for ressurection above the ­not-­just-­social beast he had become. An angry Martin Luther nailed 95 theocrats to a church door. Theologically, Luthar was into reorientation mutation. Calvinism was the most convenient religion since the days of the ancients. Anabaptist services tended to be migratory. The Popes, of course, were usually Catholic. Monks went right on seeing themselves as worms. The last Jesuit priest died in the 19th century.

After the refirmation were wars both foreign and infernal. If the Spanish could gain the Netherlands they would have a stronghold throughout northern Europe which would include their posetions in Italy, Burgangy, central Europe and India thus serrounding France. The German Emperor’s lower passage was blocked by the French for years and years.

Louis XIV became King of the Sun. He gave the people food and artillery. If he didn’t like someone, he sent them to the gallows to row for the rest of their lives. Vauban was the royal minister of flirtation. In Russia the 17th century was known as the time of the bounding of the serfs. Russian nobles wore clothes only to humour Peter the Great. Peter filled his government with accidental people and built a new capital near the European boarder. Orthodox priests became government antennae.

The enlightenment was a reasonable time. Voltare wrote a book called Candy that got him into trouble with Frederick the Great. Philosophers were unknown yet, and the fundamental stake was one of religious toleration slightly confused with defeatism. France was in a very serious state. Taxation was a great drain on the state budget. The French revolution was accomplished before it happened. The revolution evolved through monarchial, republican and tolarian phases until it catapulted into Napolean. Napoleon was ill with bladder problems and was very tense and unrestrained.

History, a record of things left behind by past generations, started in 1815. Throughout the comparatively radical years 1815–1870 the western European continent was undergoing a Rampant period of economic modification. Industrialization was precipitating in England. Problems were so complexicated that in Paris, out of a city population of one million people, two million able bodies were on the loose.

Great Brittian, the USA and other European countrys had demicratic leanings. The middle class was tired and needed a rest. The old order could see the lid holding down new ideas beginning to shake. Among the goals of the chartists were universal suferage and an anal parliment. Voting was done by ballad.

A new time zone of national unification roared over the horizon. Founder of the new Italy was Cavour, an intelligent Sardine from the north. Nationalism aided Itally because nationalism is the growth of an army. We can see that nationalism succeeded for Itally because of France’s big army. Napoleon ­III-­IV mounted the French thrown. One thinks of Napoleon III as a live extension of the late, but great, Napoleon. Here too was the new Germany: loud, bold, vulgar and full of reality.

Culture fomented from Europe’s tip to its top. Richard Strauss, who was violent but methodical like his wife made him, plunged into vicious and perverse plays. Dramatized were adventures in seduction and abortion. Music reeked with reality. Wagner was master of music, and people did not forget his contribution. When he died they labled his seat “historical.” Other countries had their own artists. France had Chekhov.

World War I broke out around 1912–1914. Germany was on one side of France and Russia was on the other. At war people get killed, and then they aren’t people any more, but friends. Peace was proclaimed at Versigh, which was attended by George Loid, Primal Minister of England. President Wilson arrived with 14 pointers. In 1937 Lenin revolted Russia. Communism raged among the peasants, and the civil war “team colours” were red and white.

Germany was displaced after WWI. This gave rise to Hitler. Germany was morbidly overexcited and unbalanced. Berlin became the decadent capital, where all forms of sexual deprivations were practised. A huge ­anti-­semantic movement arose. Attractive slogans like “death to all Jews” were used by governmental groups. Hitler remilitarized the Rineland over a squirmish between Germany and France. The appeasers were blinded by the great red of the Soviets. Moosealini rested his foundations on eight million bayonets and invaded Hi Lee Salasy. Germany invaded Poland, France invaded Belgium, and Russia invaded everybody. War screeched to an end when a nukuleer explosion was dropped on Heroshima. A whole generation had been wipe out in two world wars, and their forlorne families were left to pick up the peaces.

According to Fromm, individuation began historically in medieval times. This was a period of small childhood. There is increasing experience as adolescence experiences its life development. The last stage is us.

Anders Henriksson is a professor of history at Shepherd University, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. In addition to scholarly works such as The Tsar’s Loyal Germans (1983), he is the author of Non Campus Mentis: World History According to College Students (2001) and College in a Nutskull (2010).

Medieval Reading

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Some links to some interesting readings:

Links to European Medieval History.



Azincourt – paper   Dropbox – Azincourt


Becoming a Prince: Prince Arthur’s early life and his training to be king




Depictions of Combat in Medieval Art: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly


That Other Battle of 1066 – Commemorating the 950th Anniversary of Stamford Bridge


Science and Nature in the Medieval Ecological Imagination

And now something from a bit earlier:



Cleaning tips for around the house

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31 really good DIY tips for around the house.
This link (above) will bring you to site with photos and further links on DIY.

31 DIY Ideas for a Sparkling Home
Posted January 28, 2015 by Rosina Ayling and filed under DIY

Homemade gunk remover


Kitchen cabinets accumulate gunk and it’s not a pretty sight but you can fix the problem with this homemade gunk remover. Mix one part vegetable oil and 2 parts baking soda and use a sponge or a cloth to clean the cabinets.

Washing Lego


Lego pieces, especially small ones can get very icky and if you want to clean them one by one it would take forever. So put them all in a laundry bag and into the washing machine. Add some soap and then simply take them out and let them dry.

Oven Glass


Cleaning the oven can be very painful and the most annoying part is that the window glass always seems to be dirty. That’s because you have to clean in between too. Remove the drawer from below the oven, get a wire hanger and straighten it – attach a clean wipe to the hook at the end of the hanger and use a rubber band to secure the wipe. Stick the cleaning contraption through the slats and push it up between the oven window glass – cleaning from side to side.

Remove labels


Removing the labels from bottles or jars is not an easy task but you can greatly simplify the process if you use OxiClean. Fill the sink with warm water and add a scoop of oxiclean. Let the bottles soak for 30 minutes and the labels come off.

Clean the iron


Cleaning the iron is very simple if you know this tip. First sprinkle salt onto the ironing board, turn the iron to the highest setting and set off the steam option and then simply iron over the salt. The dirt sticks to the salt and the iron becomes clean and shiny

Remove pet hair


If you have a cat or a dog then I’m sure you’re at war with all the hair then leave around the house. But it’s not that difficult to remove all that hair. All you need is a pair of rubber gloves. Run your hand over the upholstery and the hair with cling to the glove.

Whiten pillows


It’s so annoying when you have pillow covers or other things which used to be white but now they have a yellow shade. But the good news is you can fix that. Mix the following ingredients: 1 cup of laundry detergent, 1 cup of powdered dishwasher detergent, 1 cup of bleach, ½ cup of borax and very hot water

Scratches in wood furniture


If you have an old wooden table with the top all scratched and ugly, don’t throw it out because it can still be saved. Mix ½ cup of vinegar with ½ cup of olive oil, dip a cloth in the mixture and rub it onto the wood. The scratches completely disappear and the wood looks like new.

Hard water


The nasty built up you often see on and around the faucets and in some other areas is definitely not something you want to have in your home. But you can easily remove it with vinegar. If it’s a flat surface, pour some vinegar and let it sit for about 20 minutes. For the faucet, you can use paper towels soaked in vinegar.

Oil Stains


Having oil stains on your driveway is not pretty but removing them is not easy either, unless you use Pour-N-Restore. It’s a solution which dries into a powder and absorbs all the oil and pulls up embedded stains.

Remove heat marks


If you have white heat marks on your furniture then, to remove them, you’ll have to use more heat and moisture. Take several layers of cloth and spray them with water. Put them over the stain and then iron over for about 15 seconds.

Microfibre couch


To clean a microfiber couch you need a white sponge so there is no colour-transfer and rubbing alcohol. Spray alcohol on the stained area and scrub with the sponge. Let the area dry. Then take a bristle brush and re-fluff the area.

Non-stick grill


Getting ready for a barbeque? Don’t forget the onion. That’s right, you need an onion if you want to make your grill non-stick. Just cut the onion in half and rub the cut side on the heated grill grate.

Bathroom faucet


Instead of using all sorts of cleaning products which may or may not be toxic, try instead a more natural approach. For example, you can clean the bathroom faucet with lemon. Cut a lemon in half and scrub the hard water stains on any fixture.

Shower head


Make your shower head look like new again using distilled white vinegar and a plastic bag. Pour vinegar in the bag and secure it to the shower head. Let it soak with an hour and wipe clean with a wet towel.

Window cleaner


All you have to do to make sure you have clean windows with no streaks is use water, vinegar and dish soap. Mix these three ingredients and your windows will be sparkly clean. Also, remember to use newspaper. Spray the windows with the mixture, use a white cloth to wash them and then dry them up a waded up newspaper.

Stove burners


If you ignore them, the stove burners and the grates can end up looking disgusting and nobody wants that in their kitchen. So what can you do? It’s simple actually. Clean the stove with ammonia. Take ¼ cup of ammonia and seal it up with one of the burners in a plastic bag. Let it sit overnight and then it should wipe clean with a sponge.

Kitchen sink


Make your own cleaner for the kitchen sink using the following ingredients: liquid dish washing soap, distilled white vinegar, baking soda, rock salt, lemon or lime and ice. You’ll also need an old rag, a toothbrush and a soft sponge. Rinse off the sink and sprinkle baking soda onto the surface. Make a paste and rinse. Scrub the rim with a toothbrush soaked in baking soda paste or soap. Then line the entire sink with paper towels soaked in white vinegar and let it sit for 20 minutes. Saturate a sponge with soap water and clean and sink. Fill the drain with 2 cups of ice and pour a cup of rock salt over the cubes. Run the cold water and turn on the garbage disposal until the ice is gone. Then cut a lemon in half and add to the disposal.

Wood cutting board


You’ve probably noticed that wood cutting boards retain dirt so here’s how you can clean them. You need 2 tablespoons of white vinegar, 1 cup of water, ½ lemon, sea salt, mineral oil or board oil and a towel. Wipe down the cutting board with a mix of vinegar and water. Cut a lemon in half, dip it in sea salt and scrub. Wipe with water. Then dip the towel into mineral oil and massage it into the wood.



If you prefer to use natural or homemade cleaners, here’s one you can use for the bathtub. All you need is a grapefruit and ¼ cup of kosher salt. Cut the grapefruit in half, sprinkle with salt, wet the tub and sprinkle the remaining salt around the bottom. Scrub the grapefruit around the shower or tub. Rinse with water.

Oven cleaner


To clean the oven, you can mix baking soda and vinegar. You also need a bowl and a spatula. Scrape the debris with the spatula. Sprinkle baking soda all over the floor of the oven. Then spray vinegar over the baking soda and spread the paste around. Let it sit for 10-20 minutes. Scrub in a circular motion.



Cleaning the blinds doesn’t have to be painful. There’s a simple way to do it. Mix equal parts vinegar and warm water in a bowl. Slip an old sock on your hand and wipe the blinds clean.

Permanent marker


If you have a kid who just discovered the magic of permanent markers, then you’ll most likely find works of art on the floor and furniture. Don’t worry, it can be removed. First put a dab of white toothpaste on the marker and rub with a damp cloth or paper towel.

Carpet stains


Some stains just won’t come off the carpet, no matter what type of cleaner you use. But there’s a solution for that. Spray window cleaner over the stain, put a cloth or towel over it and iron. Repeat until the stain comes off.



Both salt and baking soda are commonly used in homemade cleaning products. But why not mix them? If you do that you get a very nice cleaner which you can use on silver. Combine equal amounts of salt and baking soda.

Kitchen sponge


Kitchen sponges allow germs to pile up so it’s a nice idea to get rid of them. It’s very easy. Just the sponge in the microwave for 5 minutes. It will kill almost all the germs.

Rubbish disposal


Here’s now you can naturally clean your garbage disposal: you need 3-4 fresh lemons and a bottle of white vinegar. Roll each lemon and then slice it into small chunks. Put the pieces into the separate holes of the ice cube tray. Fill the tray with white vinegar. Freeze the cubes. Drop 1 cube in the disposal every night.

Homemade air freshener


If you prefer natural smells, then make your own air freshener. You can use lemon, vanilla and rosemary. Mix two cups of water, a teaspoon of vanilla, a sliced lemon and 2 sprigs of rosemary in a pan and simmer.

Fruity air freshener


Here’s another nice recipe. You need apples, an orange, a lemon, cranberries, cinnamon sticks, whole cloves and vanilla extract. Put everything in a saucepan and add some water. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer.

Citrus vinegar cleaner


Make a natural cleaner which smells wonderful using citrus peels and white vinegar. Take the citrus peels and put them in a jar. Cover with vinegar and let it sit for 2 weeks. Remove the peels and dilute with water (1:1). Pour into a spray bottle

Spring smell


For this recipe you need a small stockpot in which you put water, a lemon and a few sprigs of rosemary. Add 1-2 teaspoons of vanilla and let the mix simmer all day long.

Ford To Introduce 200-Mile Electric Vehicle

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Ford aims to launch 200-mile electric car to dominate the EV industry.
Now Ford is interested to be in the $35,000 electric car business with 200-mile range. CEO Mark Fields said it would launch a long-range EV that would compete with announced vehicles from Tesla Motors and General Motors that runs at least 200 miles on a single charge and cost around $35,000 prior to paying for options. It will probably be called the Model E. Meanwhile, the automaker will add to its current Focus Electric range by 24 miles to 100 miles from 76 miles.
Mark remarked while addressing a conference call with reporters and analysts on May 28, 2016. He didn’t specify a time for introducing the Model 3. For being competitive, it must happen in the upcoming two to three years to avoid becoming a late entrant following the Tesla Model 3, longer-range Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Bolt. In December, the American automaker announced its plans to add to its business portfolio by 13 electric automobiles, plug-in hybrids and by hybrids by 2020. Presently it has two hybrids, the C-Max and Fusion; two plug-in hybrid vehicles, Fusion Energi and C-Max Energi and one electric vehicle, the Focus Electric (above).
They offer Fusion Hybrid at a price of $26,000 and C-Max Energi at a price of $26,000. There’s also a Lincoln MKZ Hybrid offered at a base price of $35,000 and Fusion Hybrid Lincoln version. This fall, the Focus electric vehicle will have its range extended to 100 miles from 76 miles. That would reflect upon the growing capacity of smarter control hardware and batteries. Asked during the conference call if the automaker planned an electric vehicle with a range of 200 miles, Mark responded by stating that the company aimed to be “among the leaders or in a leadership position… clearly that’s something we’re developing for.”
Some reports state manufacturing would start in 2019 in the just — announced new facility of Ford in Mexico — the one Donald Trump referred to as a “disgrace” because the job opportunities would be inside the North American region not manufactured in the US. There are already over a 12 vehicle maker plants in Mexico and Canada supplying the American market, whereas at that same moment some facilities in the American export to the other parts of the globe.
The largest exporter from the United States is in fact a foreign carmaker BMW, which in 2016 might export over 315,000 automobiles that cost $11 billion from its plant in South Carolina. Shoppers feel more at ease with an electrically powered vehicle that runs 200 miles on one charge as it opens up the vehicle to weekday commuting and weekend travel.

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Easy Ways to Live Greener

  • Truly turn off electronics. Plug your devices — the TV and DVD player, or the computer and printer — into a UL-certified power strip; switch the whole group off for the evening to prevent phantom electrical draw.Especially at night or when leaving the house – saves on electrical fires too – a real eco-no-no. I used to make 15% of my renovation business because of TVs going on fire during the day.
  • Double up. Configure your office printer or copy machine so it prints on both sides of the page.
  • Put it to sleep. If you’ll be away from your computer for more than 20 minutes, change it to “sleep” mode.

Have you got children – turn eco-logic into games and:

  • Game off? Yep, get the kids to turn off video games (both the TV and the console) after they’re done playing, and you’ll win back about $100 per year.
  • Pitch in. Live in one of the 11 states with bottle bills? Have your kids collect aluminum cans and plastic bottles to redeem for cash to spend on a treat.
  • Don’t tap out. Teach children to turn off the water while brushing their teeth. Leaving the tap running during the recommended two minutes of brushing can waste up to five gallons of water a day.
  • Book it. Dr. Seuss’s 1971 book, The Lorax, stars a creature who “speaks for the trees” against those who’d cut them down. Talk about the message with your tykes (book and matching plush doll, $5 each, Kohl’s).
Vinegar Cleaning Tasks: 10 Ways to Clean with this Cheap, Readily-Available Ingredient: see original page:

Vinegar is magic for cleaning both your home and your body! Cleaning with vinegar is cheap, easy, and very safe, and we there are so many cleaning tasks that can be accomplished with this helpful, humble ingredient.

Whether used alone or in combination with our natural cleaning ingredients, vinegar cleaning can happen throughout the home and help reduce your exposure to common household chemicals.

1. Power up your laundry: Use about a 1/2 cup of white vinegar per load of laundry to freshen your musty or sweaty smelling clothes. It also works as a fabric softener, so you can ditch the dryer sheets too! For extra stinky stuff, soak with a mixture of 3 parts water and 1 part vinegar before washing.

2. Ditch the glass cleaner: White vinegar and newspaper are the perfect, natural way to get streak free shine in mirrors and glass. And the newspaper can still be recycled afterwards! Vinegar + water can also be used as an all-purpose cleaner.

3. Keep the toilet clean! The Queen of Green from David Suzuki’s website has a great tip for cleaning the toilet with vinegar too: to deodorize the toilet, pour 125 millilitres of white vinegar into the bowl. Let sit 15 minutes and then flush.

4. Get rid of hard water stains too! Queen of Green also says that you can remove hard-water deposits on the tub and glass shower doors. Simply warm 250 millilitres of white vinegar in a pot. Then, spray warm vinegar onto surface, let sit 15 minutes and wipe clean.

5. Homemade drain cleaner! No joke, this is our most popular post on our site. Making natural drain cleaner with just vinegar and baking soda is going to blow your mind.

6. Use it in your HAIR! Feelgood Style explains: “Keep some apple cider vinegar in your shower.  Give your hair a spritz and rinse if your dry scalp is getting out of control or if you feel like you need a little more oomph.  Apple cider vinegar cleans up nasty residue and closes your hair cuticles.  When your cuticles are closed, your hair lies flat and it looks shiny and delicious.

7. Perk up your carpets and rugs: Reader’s Digest explains that vinegar can be used to make old carpets look better! You can also sprinkle baking soda onto carpets and rugs before vacuuming to remove funky smells and dampness.

8. Clean your body too! Feelgood Style shows us that we can use baking soda to clean our faces too! To make a gentle Face Scrub, mix 3 parts baking soda, 1 part water, and 1 part quick oats and gently massage onto your face. Rinse away with warm water to reveal glowing skin.”

9. Make and all-purpose spray for kitchen and bath: Mix vinegar and water in equal parts, along with essential oils of your choice. Keep in a spray bottle and use for all spills and simple clean up tasks.

10. Make an air-freshener + all-purpose cleaner: Learn how to infuse your cleaning vinegar so you get all the cleaning power of vinegar without the smell.

And here are seven things to not clean with vinegar, including marble, wood, and more.

Check out our guide to homemade cleaning products to get started with natural cleaning in your home today!


The goal is “reduce, reuse, recycle.”

Small changes made by individuals can add up to big changes for the environment. Here are 10 to get you started:

1. Get a High-Efficiency Showerhead A high-efficiency showerhead saves up to 3,000 gallons of water per person per year. You’ll also save $50 in energy costs and 1,000 pounds of carbon dioxide per person per year. The showerheads are specially designed to conserve resources while still providing like a luxurious-feeling shower. Sink-aerator attachments also save major amounts of water and are very inexpensive.

2. Recycle Water in Your Bathroom Use devices that allow you to reuse sink water for flushing your toilet. Or keep a bucket by the shower or the tub and fill it with the cold water that comes out before the hot water kicks in. Then take the bucket outside and use it to water your plants.

3. Compost Use a compost bin to turn your food and lawn wastes into rich mulch. It’s a great way to reduce your trash production, and next year you’ll have rich compost ready to go for spring planting.

4. Buy Green Power From Your Utility Most utilities charge less than $5 per month extra. Not only will your power come from a renewable source, but you’ll use the power of your spending to show utility executives and government officials that we need more investment in renewable-energy projects.

5. Improve the Efficiency of Your Existing Water Heater Tankless and solar water heaters are great, but simple changes to your existing setup can cut your energy bills and carbon emissions by 25 percent or more. Reduce the temperature of your water heater to 120 degrees, wrap it in a water-heater insulating blanket and insulate the first 3 to 6 feet of hot and cold water pipes. These inexpensive changes should take you less than an hour to complete.

6. Use High-Efficiency Outdoor Lighting A typical 100-watt floodlight, if used for six hours a day, can consume up to $40 of electricity over the course of a year and produce upwards of 400 pounds of carbon dioxide, depending on where you live. For starters, replace those floodlights with compact-fluorescent versions-they’re just as bright and use a quarter of the energy. Next, replace low-wattage halogen landscape bulbs with LED versions. They cut energy use by over 80 percent and can last for 10 years or more. Finally, install motion sensors on any nonessential lights. New versions just screw right into your existing light socket.

7. Replace High-Use Indoor Lights with Compact Fluorescents or LEDs With high-quality light, sizes for almost any fixture and even versions that are dimmable,  compact fluorescents have it all. They’re more expensive than normal light bulbs, but between the energy savings and their much longer life spans, they pay for themselves in less than two years. And consider LED bulbs for non-dimmable circuits (especially for holiday lighting). They’re true energy misers and will last for as long as you live in your house.

8. Load Up the Washing Machines Make sure you run the dishwasher and the clothes washers only when they’re full. Clothes washers are huge energy and water users, so make sure you’re doing full loads (or adjusting the water setting) whenever possible. And most of us use far more water (and soap) than we need to when hand-washing dishes, especially when compared with high-efficiency Energy Star dishwashers. So save your time, water and power by putting those dishes directly in the dishwasher after a meal.

9. Drive Smarter Simple changes in our existing driving habits can improve fuel efficiency by up to 25 percent. Drive at or near the speed limit, keep your tires inflated, make sure oil and air filters are clean, and step on the gas and the brakes carefully. Driving like a drag racer may be fun, but it has a substantial environmental cost.

10. Avoid the Daily Waste of Fast Food and Shopping Next week, keep track of how much trash you generate by eating out and making trips to the store, I guarantee you’ll be amazed. All those bags, cups and containers really add up and are stuffing our landfills to capacity. Bring your own plastic or metal boxes to your favorite take-out joint. You’ll save resources and save them money. Use reusable shopping bags whenever you go to the store. Say “no thanks” when the pharmacist or the fast-food clerk tries to put your one or two items in a bag. Use reusable cups for coffee, soda and other beverages. And reuse some of the extras at home — keep extra napkins and reuse plastic cups and cutlery.

Jason Pelletier is a certified auditor with Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design. See:


Archery in Museum of Medieval Treasures, Waterford.

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Deidre decided to be daring

Deidre decided to be daring.

Have a go archery at the Waterford Museum of Medieval Treasures.

Learn - or die

Learn – or die.    I’ve found teaching medieval archery to be a great way to meet people and help develop their self-confidence.

Getting a strainght-line.

Demonstrating ‘Tip – nock – hand – elbow’ to create a straight line to enhance accuracy.






Darragh bring home the bacon.

Darragh bring home the bacon.

Knuckles and fingers.

Knuckles and fingers.


Experience Medieval Archery has been launched within Waterford’s Museum of Treasures. Workshops on medieval crafts and archery. A hands-on active-display where various and changing working-craft areas will be established and the use of longbows (warbows) will be demonstrated and various arrows from bone-head to flint to drop-forged to tempered armour-piercing warheads. After demonstration visitors will be offered the chance to pull a long bow and loose real arrows.And buy bows and accessories.
This will be facilitated by the Museum and supported by various other state bodies. The workshop will also continue to tour medieval (Heritage) days, folk-festivals, schools and corporate events that help senior staff bring focus and fun to their work.
The whole workshop can be easily moved and set up in an open space where a medieval tent will add colour and protection with professional archery netting to provide safety.

Sigtrygg Silkbeard trains archers in Waterford Museum

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Medieval Archery Experience in Waterford Museum of Medieval Treasures. It’s a first in the world to provide archery training with real longbows and real arrows within a museum.

Learn - or die

Learn – or die

A short discourse on arrows and the life of an archer is given then the guest gets the unique chance to draw a real longbow and loose real arrows at a traditional butt-target.House of Glass

DSC00110Sigtrygg explains living-history.

IMG_4606[1]Nice line leads to a clear shot!